The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship between the maturity level of avocado and color changes using simple device such as smartphone camera. Avocado with 3 different maturity level A1:<80%, A2:80-85%, and A3:>85% were collected from local farmer in Bandungan, Central Java. The quality evaluation was carried out on 99 avocado (weight of 366±16 g) which included the evaluation of mass loss (%), firmness (kg/mm2), total soluble solids (°brix), and color changes (picture of fruit were taken using smartphone camera and analyzed using Photoshop CC 2019 from Adobe and converted into HSI values). The data were analyzed using two-factorial completely randomized design (CRD) with factor design are the level of maturity and storage time of the avocado. The results indicated that the maturity level were significantly different (p≤0.05) for mass loss, firmness and total soluble solids (TSS) of avocado during storage. The relationship between maturity level and color changes shows the MAPE (mean absolute percent error) value for hue, saturation, intensity ranges between 3,31-6,11%; 11,12-15,79%, and 6,10-6,49% with the light intensity of 527,77 lux. The results indicate that the image processing on smartphone camera is able to describe the level of maturity based on the color changes of avocado during storage with the same treatment conditions.
The banana of CV. Mas Kirana off-grade can be processed into banana flour with high resistant starch content which functions as a prebiotic. This study aims to optimize the content of resistant starch (RS) type 3 in the produce of banana flour. Modified banana flour cv. Mas Kirana with highest RS content will then be used to substitute skim milk in making prebiotic banana yogurt and are analyzed for its sensory properties. Data were processed using design expert 11.0 with three factors, namely X1 (Lactic acid bacterial concentration (LAB), X2 (fermentation time), X3 (retrogradation time). The optimization result was 109 CFU/mL of lactic acid bacteria concentration, 24 hours of fermentation time, and 37,60 hours of retrogradation time. The resulting banana flour cv Mas Kirana has 83,95% of resistant starch, 29,24% of yield, 3,60 of logarithmic lactic acid bacteria, and 4,49 of pH value. Its application to the production of banana yoghurt prebiotic replacing 80% skim milk, was acceptable to panelists in terms of color, aroma, viscosity, taste, and overall acceptance.
Part of the cassava that can be used as a food product is usually starch and and the waste is cassava bagasse. Fermented cassava bagasse flour is a modified semi-solid fermentation product using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which has almost the same quality as modified cassava flour (mocaf), but fermented cassava bagasse flour has advantages compared to mocaf flour, namely high protein content and cheaper production costs. Fermented cassava bagasse flour has various functions which can be used as raw material for the manufacture of various processed products, one of which is cassava stick. The research objective was to see the formulation of fermented cassava bagasse flour to the sensory characteristics of the resulting cassava stick. The study was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD) including 5 treatment methods, namely cassava starch substituted by fermented cassava bagasse flour 5% (B1), 10% (B2), 15% (B3), 20% (B4) and 25% (B5), each treatment was repeated 3 times. Based on the sensory results, it was obtained that 15% (B3) fermented cassava bagasse flour substitution treatment was the best choice of cassava stick product by panelists. The results of the analysis of cassava stick products were hardness test 3,77 µ (kg / cm2) ; swelling ratio 18,33% ; moisture content 2,20% ; ash content 0,14% ; protein content 10,00% ; fat content 21,00% ; fiber content 0,17%; carbohydrate content 66,49% and total dietary fiber 21,24%.
Ketepeng cina Senna alata L. is one of the plant species growing in the tropical climate whose leaves have various bioactive components. It has been used as a traditional medicine to treat skin diseases. Ketepeng cina has been cultivated in several regions in Indonesia and the results are exported abroad to be used as medicinal raw materials. So far, the plant extraction process is still using the maceration method. This method is simple but has weaknesses in time consumption making it less efficient. The extraction method by ultrasonic waves promises more efficient extraction process than the maceration method. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in extraction techniques and solvent concentration on the concentration of phytochemical constituents in ketepang cina leaves. The research design used a completely randomized design with two factorial patterns. The first factor was the technique of extracting Ketepeng cina leaves (maceration, ultrasonication), and the second factor was the concentration of solvent/ethanol (40%, 70%, 96%) The observation parameters included analysis of the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins. The results showed that the use of the ultrasonication technique provided efficiency in extraction time compared to the maceration technique. The use of 70% ethanol resulted in higher concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds (28,17 mgGA/g) and (17,61 mgQE/g), but the highest concentration of tannins produced by 96% ethanol solvent was 6,78 mgAT/g.
By processing sorghum grains into flour, the use of sorghum grains to support food diversification can be made more varied. The research objective was to determine the physical and chemical properties of sorghum muffins and changes of physical properties of sorghum muffins during storage. The research uses a completely randomized design with two factor, grain soaking duration (hours) and ratio of concentration of whole sorghum flours with gluten flour (%) and consists of nine treatments combination. The result shows that treatment has a significant effect on the power expansion, degree of brightness, fat, and preference for organoleptic properties. The best treatment was 24-hours of soaking, 25% whole sorghum flour, 75% gluten flour that produces expanded power at 138,83%, degree of brightness (L) at 67.03, redness (a) at +4.33, yellowness (b) at +27.37, water content of 12.59%, protein content of 6.95%, fat content of 2.46%, score of color at 3.20, texture score at 3.13, aroma score at 3.16, taste score at 3.24, and for overall acceptance at 3.53 (like). Changes of physical properties of sorghum muffins during storage for 3 days can be explained with the linear equation. For all parameter (weight loss, volume loss, brightness loss), the value of constant a in the equation of sorghum muffin was lower than control muffin that indicated quality loss of sorghum muffins is higher than control muffin. Increasing the concentration of sorghum flour resulted a decrease in the quality of the muffins. The soaking treatment of the seeds in making sorghum flour can maintain the quality of the muffin.
Black Soldier Fly (BSF) farming showed an increasing trend in the past 5 years. The production process generates a leftover, that is the exuviae which are still untapped. BSF exuviae contain chitin and chitosan which can be utilized in various fields, one of which is fruit preservatives. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) is known to have many benefits and has a content of vitamins A, B, C, and E but it has a short shelf life. The purpose of this study was to characterize chitosan from BSF exuviae and choose the best edible coating method to be applied to grapes to prolong the grape’s storage time. Characterization includes physical condition, percent solubility, degree of deacetylation, and yield of the chitosan. Then, edible coating tests were carried out with 2% acetic acid solvent followed by two different methods, namely dyeing method with 5, 10 and, 15 minutes immersion time and spray method with a chitosan solution concentration of 0,5%, 1%, 1,5%, 2 %, and 2,5%. The results showed that chitosan extracted from BSF exuviae produced a physical appearance in the form of white brown powder with 55% solubility and a degree of deacetylation of 91,88%. The chitin yield is 16,2%, followed by the chitosan yield of 4,8%. The best edible coating method which can maintain the physical appearance of grapes and inhibiting fruit decayed was obtained by dipping method at a concentration of 2,5% for 10 minutes. Based on the overall observations, however, the results obtained from the dip and spray method were not significantly different.